Are your cows comfortable?

A number of resources are available online to help Canadian dairy farmers evaluate comfort and continuously improve dairy cattle welfare. The following is a quick short list:


This guide is a summary of the main points and recommendations provided in Valacta’s The Barn: A Source of Comfort training session. This practical tool is designed to help you to evaluate your cow’s comfort, associate problems with their probable causes, and explore possible solutions.


The Animal Comfort Tool

This assessment tool was developed as part of an on-farm assessment project which took place in 2010-2012. The aim of the project was to develop an on-farm animal comfort assessment tool that helps producers assess how well they are meeting the Code of Practice and to identify management and environment modifications to could potentially improve dairy cow comfort on their farms. The different components of this tool were tested in 240 commercial dairy herds, comprising of 100 tie-stall, 110 free-stall farms with milking parlor and 30 with Automatic Milking Systems, located in Quebec, Ontario and Alberta. Fifteen researchers and extension specialists of several fields related to dairy cow comfort (behaviour, nutrition, health, and management) participated in the design of our tool.

Fact Sheets for Lameness and Body Condition Score


proAction – Resources for Animal Care

Includes a long list of resources and videos for the animal care module, which is based on the Code of Practice for the Care and Handling of Dairy Cattle. Its criteria meets the stipulations of the National Farm Animal Care Council to demonstrate, with assessment and validation, that farmers respect the Code of Practice on their farm. To this end, the research done by leading animal care experts in various leading Canadian universities has been essential, as was the collaboration of a good number of other experts and stakeholders in our industry.


Selection for Increased Resistance to Metabolic Diseases

Every dairy producer has faced metabolic disease in their herd. Metabolic diseases are heavily influenced by management; particularly by nutrition through the transition period. As with all diseases, however, a genetic component also exists which means that certain animals are genetically more or less susceptible to metabolic disorders.

Starting December 2016, Canadian Dairy Network (CDN) will publish genetic evaluations for Metabolic Disease Resistance (MDR) in the Holstein, Ayrshire and Jersey breeds. With this new tool, producers will be able to select for increased resistance to these costly diseases. Read on to learn more about the development and interpretation of the Metabolic Disease Resistance index and the traits behind it.

Clinical Ketosis, Subclinical Ketosis and Displaced Abomasum

The impact of ketosis tends to be under predicted on most farms. Clinical ketosis is observed in a visibly ill animal, while subclinical ketosis often remains undetected unless a herd monitoring program is in place. Either form of ketosis leads to excess concentrations of ketones circulating in the bloodstream in early lactation as a result of negative energy balance. Ketosis can lead to other metabolic diseases, impairs immune function and can also lead to reduced reproductive performance, reduced milk production, and an overall increased risk of being culled. In general, higher parity cows experience higher volumes of total lactation milk loss after a ketotic episode.

Cows with ketosis are also more likely to experience a displaced abomasum with the majority of cases occurring soon after calving. An accumulation of gas in the abomasum, often caused by inadequate feeding and management, can cause this stomach to move up in the abdomen, generally to the left side of the body. Surgical intervention is often required and cows that have had a displaced abomasum have shown to produce over 300 kg less milk during the lactation.

Where Does the Data Come From?

A national system for collecting health events has been in place since 2007. Since that time, approximately 40% of all herds enrolled on milk recording have been voluntarily recording the incidence of eight key diseases and reporting this data to their milk recording agency. This accumulation of data has led to the calculation of genetic evaluations for Mastitis Resistance since August 2014. Effective December 2016, this source of data collection will also be used to produce genetic evaluations for Clinical Ketosis (CK) and Displaced Abomasum (DA).  In addition, DHI laboratory analysis of milk samples for levels of BHB (i.e.: milk beta-hydroxybutyrate) serves for calculating genetic evaluations for Subclinical Ketosis (SCK). The overall index for Metabolic Disease Resistance combines evaluations for these traits into a single value for genetic selection to reduce incidence rates in Canadian dairy herds.

Metabolic Disease Resistance – The Details

Metabolic Disease Resistance (MDR) combines evaluations for six traits in total, including Subclinical Ketosis, Clinical Ketosis and Displaced Abomasum, each of which is evaluated separately for cows in first lactation compared to later lactations.  To improve the accuracy of these evaluations, the genetic evaluation system also includes two indicator traits, specifically the ratio of fat to protein production in early lactation and the Body Condition Score in first lactation. In general, the relative weight on each trait in MDR is 50% for Subclinical Ketosis and 25% for both Clinical Ketosis and Displaced Abomasum. MDR has an estimated heritability of 7% and evaluations are expressed as Relative Breeding Values (RBV) with a scale that averages 100 and generally ranges from 115 for the best animals to 85 for the worst. For sires, the official status for MDR will be the same as for Subclinical Ketosis in first lactation since this trait will generally have the most daughter information included.

Due to the amount of data currently available for these diseases, CDN will publish MDR evaluations only for the Holstein, Ayrshire and Jersey breeds. In addition, genomic evaluations for MDR will only be available for the Holstein breed due to the limited number of reference sires available for Ayrshire and Jersey.

Metabolic Disease Resistance – The Impact

Table 1 shows the relative weight that each of the three metabolic diseases have in the index for Metabolic Disease Resistance (MDR) as well as the overall percentage of healthy cows in the Holstein breed for each metabolic disease. As expected, the incidence of each disease generally increases as cows get older.

As seen in Figure 1, comparing the percentage healthy daughters for sires that are highly or poorly ranked for MDR clearly shows value in genetic evaluation and selection programs based on this index to improve the resistance to all three metabolic diseases. For Holsteins, a 10-point difference between sires for MDR translates to an expected increase of healthy daughters by 5.5% for subclinical ketosis, 2% for clinical ketosis and 2% for displaced abomasum.

Metabolic disease can play a significant role in affecting the profitability of dairy farms. Combining good management practises, especially for cows during the transition period and early lactation, and the Metabolic Disease Resistance (MDR) index for genetic improvement is the ideal approach to minimizing the impact of these diseases in your herd. Given the 20% correlation that MDR has with both Pro$ and LPI some genetic progress has been achieved for these traits but producers now have the opportunity to make direct selection and mating decisions.

Lynsay Beavers, Industry Liaison Coordinator, CDN
Brian Van Doormaal, General Manager, CDN

Nutrition symposium a success!

2016The following in an extract from the Farmers’ Voice by  Ramatoulaye Coulibaly,  Dairy Farmers of Canada.

The week of November 7, Dairy Farmers of Canada was pleased to host the sixteenth  annual Symposium on Nutrition and Health. The Symposium aims to provide health professionals with presentations from top researchers on the latest research and best available evidence regarding the role of milk products in a healthy diet.

Presenting to full houses across Canada – in Vancouver, Toronto, Montreal and Moncton – this year’s four speakers provided insights to help dietitians and other health professionals answer Canadians’ questions about popular eating trends such as Paleo and Gluten-Free diets and other “dietary patterns” such as the DASH diet and the role of dairy products in healthy eating patterns. Over 1,000 people joined the webcast of the Toronto and Montreal Symposia, for a total reach of over 2,000 people.

What is the DASH diet and what does the research say?

The Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet is recognized as a pattern of healthy eating that can effectively lower elevated blood pressure as well as reduce the risk of developing hypertension as indicated in several strong studies, including systematic reviews and meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials.The DASH diet is a dietary pattern that is similar to Canada’s Food Guide, with a greater emphasis placed on vegetables, fruit and milk products.

For more on the evidence regarding the DASH diet:

What the experts had to say at the Symposium

Expert Jennifer Sygo from Cleveland Clinic Canada did not mince words about the claims of so-called superfoods: ‘‘they’re baseless; not evidence-based.’’ Her presentation addressed the Paleo diet, among others, explaining that Paleo, for example, might be good for some people, but not for everyone.

Dr. Nathalie Bergeron from Touro University in California took the stage to discuss the DASH diet as a model of healthy eating revealing that “the higher fat DASH Diet, with regular fat dairy products, is an effective alternative to the standard DASH diet.”

Dr. Andrew Samis of Queen’s University and Jean-Philippe Drouin-Chartier, PhD candidate at l’Université Laval both said it is time to reevaluate public health recommendations with respect to high fat dairy products and cardiometabolic diseases. Dr. Sami’s presentation challenged ideas about dietary fat. Fat is often portrayed as a villain or a demon and it confuses patients as “dairy products, including those that are higher in fat, are an important part of a healthy balanced diet,” he said. To corroborate, Drouin-Chartier concluded that “substantial evidence supports the inclusion of dairy products as part of a healthy diet.”

The Symposium proved successful and worth attending for many dietitians and other health professionals. You can learn more about the symposium and you can view the archived webinar at

Isabelle Neiderer, RD, Director of Nutrition, Dairy Farmers of Canada


DFC Launches Call for Research Proposals – Dairy Research Cluster 3 (2018-2023)


Since 2010, Dairy Farmers of Canada (DFC) has been a partner of the Canadian Agri-Science Clusters Initiative of Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada (AAFC) as part of the strategic framework Growing Forward 1 (2010-2013) and Growing Forward 2 (2013-2018). This Initiative allowed us to take a more coordinated and strategic approach to address our national research priorities.

In preparation for the Dairy Research Cluster 3 application under the next agriculture policy framework, DFC, in collaboration with its partners the Canadian Dairy Network and Novalait Inc., is launching a “Call for Research Proposals”. DFC invites all Canadian scientists to respond to this call. Please note that DFC does not fund research conducted by private companies.

This call for proposals is launched within the Canadian scientific community for the submission of innovative and structured research proposals for the dairy sector on the basis of the targeted outcomes and investment priorities identified in the new national dairy research strategy and the priorities of our partners. Research proposals will be selected through an evaluation process based on the relevance for the industry and the scientific quality. The selected proposals will be integrated in the scientific program of the next Dairy Research Cluster.

To access a copy of the following documents with detailed information, click on the links below:

For information, contact:

Note: DFC is forging ahead with the development of a proposal aimed at this AAFC program, even though the program has not yet been officially announced by AAFC. Therefore, there is no guarantee of funds at this point.


New National Dairy Research Strategy Announced


Dairy Farmers of Canada (DFC) has adopted a new strategy to direct its investments in dairy production and human nutrition and health research. Four major themes have been identified:

  1. Dairy farm efficiency and sustainability
  2. Animal health and welfare
  3. Milk composition, quality and safety
  4. Milk products and components in human nutrition and health.

Each theme has targeted outcomes established to ensure that dairy research projects will address the major issues Canadian dairy farmers want solved by research. To view a copy of the strategy, visit

The strategy will serve as an important guide for future research investments by DFC.
As a next step in the planning process, DFC’s call for research proposals will be launched the week of November 14, 2016.  Canadian dairy scientists will be invited to apply for funding for the next Dairy Research Cluster.

To receive the call for proposals announcement and details, please subscribe to our distribution list by clicking on the following link by November 11, 2016DFC Call for Research Proposals Distribution List.

New governance body for national research investments: The Canadian Dairy Research Council

The Canadian Dairy Research Council (CDRC) is a new committee with representation from all provinces and members of the Board of Directors of DFC. The CDRC reports to the DFC Board. It guides the overall development, implementation and delivery of research activities for dairy production, and human nutrition and health research.

The CDRC completed its first mandate in June 2016 and developed DFC’s National Dairy Research Strategy to better coordinate dairy farmers’ research investments at the national and provincial levels. The National Dairy Research Strategy was approved by DFC’s Board of Directors in June 2016 and presented to its General Council in July 2016.

For information on dairy research governance and on research highlights, download our fact sheets at:


Fact sheets on lameness and body condition score now available

Two new fact sheets were developed as trouble-shooting guides for farmers on identifying and addressing lameness and body condition score. These practical information documents were developed using research outcomes from projects supported in the Dairy Research Cluster and in consultation with proAction experts, knowledge transfer advisors and veterinarians.

A new fact sheet on injury is in development. The information documents can be accessed at

To download your copy, click on the links below:



Body Condition Score


Including corn in crop rotations is profitable for dairy farms and does not result in greater greenhouse gas emissions at the whole farm level


The following is an abstract of a poster presented by student Véronique Ouellet, Université Laval, at the American Dairy Science Association meeting in Utah last summer.




Corn silage is recognized as a palatable and digestible source of energy for dairy cows. On the other hand, corn silage production is widely criticized as it may carry more environmental risks than perennial forages.


Our objective was to use the whole-farm model N-CyCLES to assess the effect of different crop rotations with varied levels of environmental risks on dairy farm profits, nitrogen (N) and phosphorous (P) balance, and greenhouse gas emissions, while optimizing the management practices required to achieve maximum profits. Adaptations made to the model, included modification to rotations, adjustment in the optimization constraints, evaluation of crop production cost, evaluation of forage nutritive value, and update in fertilization requirements.


Data representative of an average dairy farm from Centre-du-Quebec region in Quebec, Canada were used. Four crop rotation scenarios considered to have different environmental impact were built in the model, and compared: corn grain-soybean-corn silage-alfalfa-alfalfa (very high negative impact, +++); corn grain-soybean-corn silage-alfalfa/timothy-alfalfa/timothy-alfalfa/timothy (moderate negative impact, ++); cereal-alfalfa/timothy-alfalfa/timothy-alfalfa/timothy-naked oats (low negative, +); cereal-alfalfa/timothy-alfalfa/timothy-alfalfa/timothy-alfalfa/timothy-mixed grains (positive impact, -).


Results showed that the highest dairy farm profits (0.12 $/kg of FPCM) were associated with the (++) rotation, whereas the lowest profits (0.05 $/kg of FPCM) were associated with the (-) rotation. The lowest farm-gate to farm-gate greenhouse gas emissions allocated to milk production (0.98 CO2 eq./kg of FPCM) was predicted for the (+++) rotation, whereas the highest value (1.03 CO2 eq./kg of FPCM) was predicted for the (-) rotation. This result is mainly explained by the lack of cash crops sold and the lower NFC and higher N content in cow diets for the farm with (-) rotation. The highest N and P balances (20.1 g/kg of FPCM and 1.185 g/kg of FPCM, respectively) were predicted for the (-) rotation since more corn grain was bought (156.5 t/yr) to compensate for the absence of corn grain and corn silage produced on the farm. Moreover, the lowest N and P balances (12.8 g/kg of FPCM, 0.465 g/kg of FPCM) were predicted for the (++) rotation.


These results suggested that including corn silage in the crop rotation do not carry a greater environmental risk on the considered output than crop rotations without corn, and that growing corn silage is profitable when the whole farm is considered as a single unit of decision. Sound practices still need to be developed to improve other environmental considerations such as soil structure and erosion.

Authors:  Ouellet, V. (Université Laval), D. Pellerin (Université Laval), M. Chantigny (AAFC), and E. Charbonneau (Université Laval)