Dairy Farmers of Canada’s (DFC) My Dairy Research Student Competition is an online competition for all graduate students (M.Sc. and Ph.D.) involved in a research project funded by DFC in a Canadian university.
The objective is to engage students in the creation of innovative content for research users containing their project’s results, new knowledge and the impacts/benefits of their research for the dairy sector and Canadians.
This nationwide online competition will provide opportunities to graduate students:
To apply their science communications and knowledge transfer skills in developing content for research user audiences;
To receive acknowledgement for their research in an online community of potential future employers in the dairy sector; and,
To be part of DFC’s dairy research success stories showcased in multiple online channels.
Graduate students (M.Sc. and Ph.D.) are invited to prepare and submit content, in English or French, describing their dairy research study and results in one of the following categories:
Podcast (max. 3 min.)
Video (max. 3 min.)
Infographic (max. 1 page)
Content must include the following: key study results, methods used, new knowledge and the potential economic, social or environmental impacts of the research on the dairy sector and Canadians.
All entries will be evaluated by a Selection Committee. A minimum score of 75 out of 100 must be met to be eligible for a prize. The three entries with the highest scores in each category will be posted online on Facebook for public viewing and voting.
Grand Prize: $1,500 cash prize, in each category, for the submission that received the most votes from the public.
Second Prize: $800 cash prize, in each category, for the submission that received the second highest number of votes from the public.
Third Prize: $500 cash prize in each category, for the submission that received the third highest number of votes from the public.
September 15, 2021 – Deadline for submissions
October 15, 2021 – Selection Committee identifies the top three submissions in each category
October 22 – November 5, 2021 – Online Public Voting Period
A new Dairy Research hub was launched on Dairy Farmers of Canada’s (DFC) website at: https://dairyfarmersofcanada.ca/en/dairy-research. The site contains key information on DFC research investments, governance, My Dairy Research Student Competition and research partners. As a part of the DFC corporate site, the new look and feel of the research content enables easier navigation, a better user experience on all devices and enables quick and easy page sharing across social media platforms.
Over the next five months, DFC’s research program and funding information for dairy production and human nutrition and health research will be transferred from the site DairyResearch.ca and DairyNutrition.ca and housed in the DFC Dairy Research Hub. Watch for updates including the call for research proposals for the Dairy Research Cluster 4 set for the Fall of 2021.
DFC’s NewDairy Research Newsletter
Dairy researchers, students and stakeholders will soon be invited to sign up for the new Dairy Research newsletter. The newsletter will contain announcements and updates on calls for research funding proposals along with other pertinent research program news.
Effective September 2021, the process of migrating content from the DairyResearchBlog.ca and DairyResearch.ca will be completed. The link DairyResearch.ca will remain as a live URL to re-direct users to the new Hub that houses DFC dairy research content. Both DairyResearch.ca and the DairyResearchBlog.ca will be progressively shut down.
By late 2021, content developed by DFC and its partners for the purpose of delivering knowledge translation and transfer materials will be housed in Lactanet’s new website at Lactanet.ca. DFC is partnering with Lactanet to include DFC-branded materials on their website. Content like extension articles and factsheets currently found on the Dairy Research Blog and DairyResearch.ca will be migrated gradually to the Lactanet.ca website. This new DFC-Lactanet partnership in KTT content delivery will optimize dairy farmers’ search and access to a combination of tools and materials online in one national location.
Dairy farmers of Canada has initiated the process to update the National Dairy Research Strategy to guide investments in science over the next five years. The process, under the oversight of the Canadian Dairy Research Council, involves an online survey developed for broad consultation on research topics and facilitated focus groups with technical and scientific experts to determine key research orientations for each of the priorities identified from the survey results.
The survey, targeting Canadian dairy farmers, industry stakeholders as well as the scientific and professional communities, was online from April 1 to 23. The questions covered the following research priority areas: Farm Environmental Sustainability, Farm Productivity, Dairy Genetics, Animal Care and Welfare, Milk and Dairy Products and, Dairy Consumption and Health Attributes, as well questions about knowledge transfer of research results. There were 1,056 respondents from all the provinces; 58% were dairy farmers, 11% researchers and students; and 13% health professionals. DFC wishes to thank all respondents for their participation!
The following graphs represent the demographics of survey respondents.
DFC’s new National Dairy Research Strategy should be released in October and will be the basis of the next Dairy Research Cluster call for proposals to be launched by the end of 2021.
Two factsheetswere developed and made available on the DairyNutrition.ca website. More than 8,000 copies were distributed to dietitians (2,732 copies of both factsheets), high school teachers (4, 414 copies of the Calcium factsheet) and nutrition affiliates in the provinces (1,150 copies of the Calcium factsheet) as part of DFC’s 2021 Nutrition Month Campaign in March.
The factsheet Calcium: A Nutrient of Concern in Canada highlights data from the most recent national dietary survey on the status of calcium intakes amongst Canadians and the contribution of milk products to calcium needs. It demonstrates the widespread calcium inadequacy intake in all age groups, which is mainly related to a decline in milk and milk product consumption over an 11-year period.
The EAT-Lancet’s Planetary Health Diet: How Does it Compare to Canadian Nutrient Recommendations? factsheet outlines the nutritional assessment of the dietary patterns defined by the Eat-Lancet Commission compared to current Canadian recommended nutrient intakes. Four dietary patterns described by the EAT-Lancet’s Planetary Health Diet do not meet the daily recommended intakes of several essential nutrients for many life-stage and gender groups. These problematic nutrients are calcium, zinc, iron, vitamin A and vitamin B12.
For more than 20 years, David Fraser, Dan Weary and Nina Von Keyserlingk at the University of British Columbia have been the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council (NSERC) – Industrial Research Co-Chairholders in Dairy Cattle Welfare. This team has been leading the science of animal care and welfare practices in the Canadian dairy sector and internationally. DFC and a number of other sector partners have financed the Chair since it was created in 1997 and in 2019, the Chair was renewed for another five years with DFC support and several other partners.
The scientific results have helped farmers continuously improve their practices, establish standards for the evaluation of the animal care module of proAction® and served as evidence for revisions to the Code of Practice for the Care and Handling of Dairy Cattle (2009).
Highlights of results from the 2014-2019 research program:
Calves fed high volumes of milk and raised in pairs or in groups experienced benefits for their health, welfare and behaviour (social adaptation).
Building on work started early on in the Chair’s history where research showed tremendous weight gain benefits to feeding calves more milk (up to 12 Litres per day) via a nipple (on average daily gain was about 0.90 kg/d) accompanied by reductions in cross sucking, the group moved to explore social housing. Studies of calves paired or housed in groups, showed that calves ate more starter and gained more weight compared to calves housed individually.1,2 Pair housing also improved starter intake (at 3-10 weeks old), improving daily weight gain by an average of a 130 grams per day more compared to individually housed calves.
From a behavioural perspective, the benefits observed of housing calves with a partner included better socialization and learning and reduced distress response at weaning. For instance, calves in paired housing adapted sooner to new feed, were calmer when moved to new environments and did better when subjected to cognitive tasks.3
Heifers benefited from having a social role model for adaptation to situations like a new housing environment.
Studies found thatheifers reared in open pens showed reduced lying and feeding times when first introduced to free stall housing. But when a role model like an experienced cow was with heifers, the heifers adapted to stall use more quickly.4 The team concluded that grouping heifers with experienced older animals positively affected their behaviour and adaptation to pasture and new housing systems.5
The transition period is a critical time for cows and a number of studies were completed to help improve transition cows’ health and care.
A study concluded that an unpredictable and competitive social environment before calving causes changes in feeding and social behaviour, leading to changes in health status and increases the risk of uterine disease in multiparous cows after calving.6
Reducing lameness during the dry period and avoiding over-conditioning at dry-off likely promotes improved transition health.7 The researchers found that lameness at dry-off was associated with metritis and transitional diseases, but not with subclinical ketosis. An association between lameness and transitional diseases is partially mediated through reduced feeding time.
A high incidence of lameness during dairy cows’ dry period was observed; hoof trimming before the dry period reduced the risk of lameness for primiparous cows but not for multiparous cows.8
Low body condition at dry-off and non-infectious hoof lesions in the weeks before dry-off were associated with chronic lameness during the dry period.9
Changes in feeding, social and lying behaviors can help identify cows at risk of metritis. Cows ate less, were replaced at the feed bunk more often and spent less time lying down compared to healthy cows10 during a two-week period before calving and at 3 days before a clinical diagnosis of metritis.
Cows’ motivation to access the outdoors varies with time of day and season and providing a mechanical brush in the barn can be an important resource for the animals.
The researchers studied free stall housed cows’ motivation to access pasture. They gauged the cows’ motivation by having them push on a weighted gate to access fresh feed compared to a weighted gate used to access pasture. Weights on the gates were gradually increased over time by the same amount to test the animals’ motivation. They found that cows will work as hard to access pasture as they will to access fresh feed. Cows also worked hardest for outdoor access in the evening.11When given the choice, cows housed in free stalls spent 25% of their time on an outdoor pack in summer and primarily at night. In winter, they spent 2% of their time outside. On an outdoor pack, cows spent 53.7% of the time lying down during the summer and 4.7% of the time lying down during the winter.12
Similarly, the researchers tested cows’ motivation to access a mechanical brush using a weighted gate system. Cows were trained to push a weighted gate to access fresh feed, a mechanical brush or the same space without a brush. They observed that cows are highly motivated to access a mechanical brush for grooming, suggesting that this is an important resource for these animals.13
Improvements for animal care at calving
Their studies found that cows that were calving preferred sand or concrete flooring, suggesting that these types of flooring may provide better traction for bouts of lying and standing when calving.14They also demonstrated that cows that were calving preferred visual isolation from others and if provided the option, they will hide behind a barrier. The researchers recommend that providing a plywood barrier for cows when they are calving is a simple and low-cost method of meeting a cow’s need for isolation when calving.15
Benchmarking practices for improved dairy cattle welfare on commercial farms
The researchers tested farmers’ use of benchmarking reports to measure dairy cattle growth rates and transfer of immunity from colostrum in dairy calves. The use of reports resulted in a majority of farms making at least one management change in consultation with their veterinarian to improve their results.16 They concluded that benchmarking specific outcomes associated with calf rearing can motivate producer engagement in calf care, leading to improved outcomes for calves on farms that apply relevant management changes.
What’s next? In 2019, a new five-year NSERC-IRC program (2019-2024) was launched by co-Chairs Dan Weary and Marina (Nina) von Keyserlingk. Over the next 5 years these two scientists will combine practical studies on commercial farms with a series of experimental studies conducted at the UBC Dairy Education and Research Centre. The objectives for the new program following industry partner consultations are focused on: calf and heifer rearing, cow health and lameness, housing facilities and management, and painful procedures.
IRC Chair in Dairy Cattle Welfare overview
Chairholders: David Fraser,Marina (Nina) von Keyserlingk, Dan Weary (University of British Columbia)
Current Investment Partners: Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council (NSERC), Dairy Farmers of Canada, Alberta Milk, BC Dairy Association, Boehringer Ingelheim (Canada) Ltd., BC Cattle Industry Development Council, Dairy Farmers of Manitoba, Intervet Canada Corp., Lactanet, Saputo Inc., SaskMilk, and Semex Alliance.